Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) are a frequent and disabling condition which affects 13 to 23 per 100,000 persons each; it remains a major cause of morbidity and social disruption. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible therapeutic potency of melatonin (100 mg/kg) or resveratrol (100 mg/kg) in enhancing the recovery after Schwann cells transplantation in injured sciatic nerves of albino rats in an attempt to overcome multiple factors that limit axons growth after injury. Recovery of function was analyzed by biochemical quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity levels, assessment of the sciatic function index (SFI) based on walk track analysis, measurement of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA levels as a relative ratio to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) by using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), electrophysiological assessment and histopathological evaluation. The results showed that there were significant improvements in serum MDA and serum total antioxidant capacity levels, the relative expression of BDNF mRNA by RT-PCR, the SFI values, the electrophysiological evaluations and the histopathological examinations after intralesional injection of SCs and its combination with melatonin or resveratrol when compared with the sciatic nerve injured untreated group, but the combined groups (SCS and melatonin and SCs and resveratrol treated groups) were significantly superior to the SCs cells only treated group in most of the assessments. We proved the presence of the transplanted cells in the injured tissue by the immunohistochemistry.