Recently we have shown that mitochondrial HSP60 of Brugia malayi (mtHSP60bm) showsÂ high degree of homology with Escherichia coli GroEL/ES and that the ATP binding pocketsÂ of HSP60 in humans, E. coli and B. malayi were structurally conserved. In the present studyÂ we investigated the immune responses to rmtHSP60bm in Mastomys coucha and the fate ofÂ infection in the immunized animals. The animals received 4 immunization doses ofÂ rmtHSP60bm and were subsequently exposed to B. malayi infection. Microfilaremia, adultÂ worm status, nitric oxide (NO), Th1 (IFN-g, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, IL 10 and TGF-Î²) cytokineÂ release, cell proliferative response, levels of specific IgG and its subclasses, and theÂ mast cell status in lymph nodes were assessed on day 135/136 post infection. ImmunizationÂ with rmtHSP60bm and subsequent exposure to infection resulted in significantly high microfilaraemiaÂ but without any change in adult worm burden. Immunization withÂ rmtHSP60bm increased IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b levels, and IL-2 and IFN-g release and suppressedÂ NO release and CMI responses, but without any change in IL-4 and IL-10 release.Â Exposure of immunized animals to infection enhanced the CMI responses and, NO and IL-Â 10 release but decreased IgG1 levels and IL-2 and IL-4 release; however, IgG, IgG2a,Â IgG2b, and IFN-g responses remained unaltered. Mast cells in the draining lymph nodes ofÂ immunized-infected animals showed significant degranulation but without any increase inÂ cell count. However, no pathology was found in the lymph nodes. These findings indicateÂ that mtHSP60bm may modulate and balance the hostâ€™s immune responses to favor parasiteÂ survival without inducing any pathology.